How Historians and Archeologists Study the Past?
Cornell Notes

Why Study History?
What historical questions are asked by Archeologists?
Key points and Themes:
Historians’ Tools?
  • Seek patterns, explanations, causes and effects.
  • Seek insight to human nature, answer historical questions.Questions help them compare societies.
  • Draw conclusions, draw conclusions about the past.
  • How have leaders governed societies?
  • How have belief systems developed, changed?
  • How have societies dealt with differences among their people?
  • How have societies tried to protect people’s security?
  • How are societies similar and different?
  • Primary source – Something created by person who witnessed event. (Examples: letters, diaries, eyewitness articles, videos, speeches, artifacts, etc.
  • Secondary Source – Created after event by person didn’t witness it. Books, paintings, media reports based on primary sources. (Appears after event and provides a more balanced view of event.)
  • Oral History is the unwritten verbal accounts of events. (Stories, customs, songs, histories, traditions, etc.Passed from generation to generation.)

Social Studies Education - Reasons Why We Should Study It (DO WRITE ON!)

By //Jenifer Gate//

During our first days in each Social Studies class in school, the usual question of the teacher would be "What is the importance of social studies?" This question goes on almost each year. This is for the benefit of the students to remember what they have learned from their previous year. For a broader yet clearer sense, we will discuss what social studies are, and why it is important for us to learn the concepts of it.

The main purpose of this subject is for us to become better citizens. We do this by studying our past. It is a study of history, but in a wider perspective. Here, we can learn how civilizations came about and how humanity began from then on. It also tells us about the improvement that the world has achieved from the generations that have passed. When we understand the past more clearly, we will understand the different human interactions the early people made and how it brought the civilization of today.

We are not only studying about the past and our history, we also learn about the methods that people used to improve their societies. Social studies have a very wide scope and it has so many branches and other fields of study. It is also a very interesting subject to learn because it helps us learn about almost anything under the sun.

By studying it, we can also develop nature values that will help us become better people, and how we can improve and contribute to our society. Each of the branches of study relates with science. Science and history are much related based upon the artifacts, historical beginnings, and origins of humanity.

If we try to understand this subject, we are going to learn a lot not only about how the world came about, but also how the world of today was made. Along the years, we can see that the world continues to evolve and change. These are all written and recorded in our history which the students of tomorrow will later study. We are building the world more and more.

All of the things we are using today and the methods we are relying with our everyday lives are all the results of what humans were. It is what they have formulated, discovered and invented in making our lives easier. We owe much from the people of the past. We can expect so much more in the near future regarding on how much we already know at this moment. We can still invent more, discover more, and improve our lives better.

Those are the reasons why social studies is a very important subject to learn.

Leveled Learning Centers Activities
Location Learning Center 1

Discuss location using key terms. Now, use the concepts of location and track and plot the 2008 or 2012 US President Campaign using Google Earth. Create a diagram via power point/display board showing the absolute and relative location of the campaign.

Design and illustrate a map of Piedmont Middle that could be used at the school. You might use pictures, symbols, words landmarks etc.

Make a large poster routing the absolute and relative location of you moving from the front of the school to the cafeteria.

Environment Human Interaction: Waste and Energy Reduction Learning Center 2
Present information in a multi-media Presentation. Make sure you are ready to present the following: Introduction (What is Human Environment Interaction, What is Waste and Energy? What is the impact? What are some solutions?) No power points.

Write five recommendations to Piedmont Middle on how we as a school can conserve energy. (Be ready to present for morning announcements)

Write a letter to your parents explaining Environment Human Interaction and why is it important for your family to reduce its impact on the environment.

On a poster board, create a personal plan on how for the next week you will reduce your impact on the environment.

Place: Charlotte, the Queen City! Learning Center 3

You are the owner of an advertising and marketing firm hired by the Mayor and leaders of the city. They have hired you to create a multi-media advertisement that would entice more people to come to Charlotte. They request that you invent an exciting motto to go along with the city’s nickname. Inform visitors of the attractions and activities we as a city have to offer. Provide three ways you are going to increase tourism to the Queen City.

On a poster board, make a three slide cartoon explaining what makes Charlotte, the Queen City unique. Under each cartoon, write a brief summary about the slide.

Invent a motto to go along with the city’s nickname. Create a poster board displaying the attractions and activities Charlotte has to offer.

Movement Learning Center 4
Your firm has been asked to write a proposal explaining the need to extend the city rail to the University and other parts of city. Create a diagram of your city rail extension.

Create a brochure that explains the various ways a tourist can get around the city of Charlotte. Describe each form of transportation and its accessibility (convenience/ease of access).

Look online for examples of various types of movement in the city of Charlotte. Illustrate these examples on a poster board. Provide a caption for each illustration.


LOCATION (Where is it?)* Absolute: A location can be absolute (specific) as in coordinates of a map using longitude and latitude. (Address) exact position.
  • Relative: A location can be relative - examples: next door, nearby, a short drive, down the road a ways. Or, it can be in the same general location as another location - example: next to the post office. (Use of landmarks)
REGION (How and why one area is similar to, or different from, another area?)* A region is an area that is defined by certain similar characteristics. Those unifying or similar characteristics can be physical, natural, human, or cultural.
The three types of area are:
Defined by a government or physical characteristicsDefined by a functionLoosely defined
PLACE (What’s it like there?)* A place is an area that is defined by everything in it. All places have features that give them personality and distinguish them from other places.
  • If I was trying to tell you about the bedrooms in a house, and I wanted to explain to you exactly which one I meant, I could say, "the one with two beds and one window". If the other rooms had only one bed each, or two windows, then you could easily tell which room I meant.
  • It is a description of what makes that place different to others.
Divided into 2 parts:
Physical differences, or characteristics, include things that occur naturally, such as mountains, rivers, type of soil, wildlife, climate etc.
Human differences, or characteristics, are things that have changed due to people, such as roads and buildings, how people live and their traditions.
You can discuss the cities, lifestyle, culture and all sorts of other interesting facts that make the place you are talking about different and special.
MOVEMENT (How and why places are connected with one another?)* Includes the movement of people, things, such as goods, as well as communications (the movement of ideas).
We can describe the type of communications a place has and the main forms of transportation, as well as what goods are exported and imported. These all come under the heading of movement
Human-Environment Interaction (What is relationship between humans and its environment?)* Human-environment interaction looks at the relationships between people and their environment; (positively or negatively) How people adapt to the environment and how they change it.
  • Examples of this theme are damming a river, polluting the air, building highways or railroads, and even watering lawns and gardens. Human behavior such as planting trees is a positive interaction with the environment where creating landfills is a negative interaction.
It can be divided into 3 parts:
How do people depend on the environment? How to people adapt to the environment? How do people modify the environment?

The study of the production, distribution, and use of goods and services.

MARKET ECONOMY* The economy is consumer driven and ruled by competition.
  • It is not controlled by one person, organization or institution.
  • Business owners and consumers make decisions about what to make, sell and buy.
  • Entrepreneurs (people who start businesses) are large part of the growth of a market economy.
  • In a market economy, it is important that small businesses and corporations are doing well in production of goods.
  • You may find some government regulations/involvement in a market economy. (Ex. Social Security, Medicare, etc.
COMMAND ECONOMY* All aspects of the economy are determined by the government, not the people.
  • Controls majority of wealth.
  • Dictates lives of individual workers.
  • Manages all elements of production.
TRADITIONAL ECONOMY* Allows people to trade individual resources in order to fulfill their needs.
  • The oldest form of an economic system.
  • Exchange of goods and services.
  • Money is not used.
  • (Barter) Trade of one item for another. Ancient Greece